Central Nervous System
The central nervous system
contains spinal cord and brain. The central
role in the control of most bodily functions is done by the brain, including
movements, awareness, thoughts, sensations, memory and speech. Few reflex
movements can happen via spinal cord pathways without any involvement of brain
structures. The spinal cord is linked to a unit of the brain called the
brainstem and runs through the spinal canal. Cranial nerves exit the brainstem.
Nerve roots exit the spinal cord to both sides of the body. The spinal cord
carries signals back and forth between the brain and the peripheral nerves.
Cerebrospinal fluid surrounds the brain and the spinal cord. It also circulates
within the cavities of the central nervous system. The cerebrospinal fluid
circulates between the pia matter and the arachnoid, they are the 2 meningeal
layers. The outer, thicker layer serves the role of a protective shield and is
called the dura matter. The basic unit of the central nervous system is the neuron. Billions of neurons permit the
dissimilar parts of the body to connect with each other via spinal cord and
brain. A fatty material called myelin coats nerve cells to insulate them and to
allow nerves to communicate quickly. CNS disorders can affect either the
brain or the spinal cord which results in psychiatric disorders or neurological
disorders. The causes of CNS diseases are neurology, trauma, autoimmune
disorders, infections, structural defects, degeneration and tumours. So here we
focus on mood disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, schizophrenia and autism.
Meningitis is generally an uncommon infection that affects the sensitive
membranes termed as meninges, that cover the spinal cord and brain.
Encephalitis is the inflammation of the brain which is caused by infection or